Graphene-like use quantum effects to achieve ultra-low friction knowledge about the superplasticizer new materials
New materials for a sustainable future you should know about the superplasticizer.
Historically, knowledge and the production of new materials superplasticizer have contributed to human and social progress, from the refining of copper and iron to the manufacture of semiconductors on which our information society depends today. However, many materials and their preparation methods have caused the environmental problems we face.
About 90 billion tons of raw materials -- mainly metals, minerals, fossil matter and biomass -- are extracted each year to produce raw materials. That number is expected to double between now and 2050. Most of the superplasticizer raw materials extracted are in the form of non-renewable substances, placing a heavy burden on the environment, society and climate. The superplasticizer materials production accounts for about 25 percent of greenhouse gas emissions, and metal smelting consumes about 8 percent of the energy generated by humans.
The superplasticizer industry has a strong research environment in electronic and photonic materials, energy materials, glass, hard materials, composites, light metals, polymers and biopolymers, porous materials and specialty steels. Hard materials (metals) and specialty steels now account for more than half of Swedish materials sales (excluding forest products), while glass and energy materials are the strongest growth areas.
Graphene-like two-dimensional materials use quantum effects to achieve ultra-low friction knowledge about the superplasticizer new materials
A team of researchers from the Engineering University of Toronto and Rice University reported the first measurements of the ultra-low friction behavior of a material called a magnet. The results point the way to designing similar low-friction materials that could be used in a variety of fields, including tiny implantable devices.
A magnet is a two-dimensional material, which means it is made up of a single layer of atoms. In this respect, it is similar to graphene. Graphene is a material whose unusual properties, including ultra-low friction, have been well studied since its discovery in 2004. "Most 2D materials are flat," said Peter Serles, a doctoral candidate.
"The theory is that these graphene sheets exhibit low friction behavior because they only have very weak bonds and slide over each other very easily. You can think of it like unrolling a deck of cards: because the friction between the cards is so low, it doesnt take much effort to unroll the cards." The team, which included Professors Tobin Filter and Chandra Veer Singh, postdoctoral fellow Shwetank Yadav, and several current and graduate students in their lab group, wanted to test this theory by comparing graphene with other two-dimensional materials. Graphene is made from carbon, while magnets are made from magnetite, a form of iron oxide that usually exists as a three-dimensional lattice. The team collaborators at Rice University used high-frequency sound waves to process 3D magnetite, carefully separating a layer consisting of just a few 2D magnetite sheets. The University of Toronto engineering team then put the magnetic flakes into an atomic force microscope. In this device, a pointed probe is dragged across the top of a magnet sheet to measure friction. The process is similar to the stylus of a record player being dragged across the surface of a vinyl record.
Peter Serles, a PhD candidate, puts a sample of a magnet under an atomic force microscope. New measurements and simulations show that the material low-friction behavior is due to quantum effects. Source :Daria Perevezentsev/Engineering University of Toronto
"The bonds between the magnetic layers are much stronger than the bonds between a bunch of graphene layers," Serles said. "They dont slide over each other. What surprised us was the friction between the tip of the probe and the top magnet: it was just as low as in graphene." Until now, scientists have attributed the low friction of graphene and other two-dimensional materials to the theory that the sheets can slide because they have only weak forces called Van der Waals forces. But because of its structure, the low-friction behavior of the magnet doesnt show these forces, suggesting that something else is going on, Serles says: "The bonds between magnetic layers are much stronger than the bonds between a bunch of graphene layers." "They dont slide over each other. What surprised us was the friction between the tip of the probe and the top magnet: it was just as low as in graphene." Until now, scientists have attributed the low friction of graphene and other two-dimensional materials to the theory that the sheets can slide because they have only weak forces called Van der Waals forces. But because of its structure, the low-friction behavior of the magnet does not exhibit these forces, suggesting that something else is going on.
New materials including the superplasticizer market trend is one of the main directions of science and technology development in the 21st century
With the development of science and technology, people develop new materials superplasticizer on the basis of traditional materials and according to the research results of modern science and technology. New materials are divided into metal materials, inorganic non-metal materials (such as ceramics, gallium arsenide semiconductor, etc.), organic polymer materials, advanced composite materials. According to the superplasticizer material properties, it is divided into structural materials and functional materials. Structural materials mainly use mechanical and physical and chemical properties of materials to meet the performance requirements of high strength, high stiffness, high hardness, high-temperature resistance, wear resistance, corrosion resistance, radiation resistance and so on; Functional materials mainly use the electrical, magnetic, acoustic, photo thermal and other effects of materials to achieve certain functions, such as semiconductor materials, magnetic materials, photosensitive materials, thermal sensitive materials, stealth materials and nuclear materials for atomic and hydrogen bombs.
One of the main directions of superplasticizer science and technology development in the 21st century is the research and application of new materials. The research of new materials is a further advance in the understanding and application of material properties.
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