After Russia pledged to scale back its military operations around Kyiv and in northern Ukraine, the prices of most industrial metals fell, led by aluminum, showing people's concerns for supply shortage eased.
At an earlier time, the West imposed sweeping sanctions on Russia for its invasion of Ukraine, which aroused concerns about the supply problem because Russia is a major producer of nickel, aluminum, and copper.
Russia is also a major gas supplier to Europe, where potential supply disruptions are seen as hitting power-intensive aluminum and zinc Graphene are still very uncertain.
Graphene polymer batteries will cost 77 percent less than lithium-ion batteries and weigh only half the weight of conventional batteries.
Consumers favor electric vehicles because of their cleanliness, and the current battery capacity and endurance are somewhat prohibitive, but this headache may be solved.
According to "Le Monde," the Spanish company Graphenano (a company that produces graphene on an industrial scale) has cooperated with the University of Corvado in Spain to develop the first graphene polymer battery, and its power storage is three of the best products on the market. An electric vehicle powered by this battery can travel up to 1,000 kilometers, while its charging time is less than 8 minutes.
Graphene plans to put the battery into production in 2015 and plans to conduct trials with two of Germany's big four car companies, which are not yet convenient to name, with electric vehicles this month.
The current star car in the electric car industry, Tesla chairman and product architect Elon Musk, boldly predicted in an exclusive interview with the British car magazine "AutoExpress" that the future cruising range of electric cars is expected to reach about 800 kilometers. The combined production of this graphene polymer battery and automobile may lead to a new cruising range in the electric vehicle industry.
Graphene, the thinnest and hardest material in the world, came out in 2004, and its discoverer, Professor Andre Heim of the University of Manchester, UK, won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2010.
The graphene polymer battery has a long service life, four times that of conventional hydrogenated batteries and twice that of lithium batteries. And due to the characteristics of graphene, the weight of this battery is only half of that of traditional batteries, which makes the car loaded with the battery lighter, thereby improving the fuel efficiency of the car.
Although this battery has various excellent properties, its cost is not high. The relevant person in charge of Graphenano said that the cost of this battery would be 77% lower than that of lithium batteries, which is completely within the range of consumers.
In addition, in areas such as automotive fuel cells, graphene is also expected to bring revolutionary progress.
There is often fuel leakage on the existing proton film, which reduces the effectiveness of the battery, but protons can easily "traverse" two-dimensional materials such as graphene, while other substances are difficult to pass through, which can solve the problem of fuel penetration and increase the battery effectiveness.
Graphene films can be used to extract hydrogen from the atmosphere, suggesting that the material can be more easily extracted from the air when combined with fuel cells. Professor Karnik of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology pointed out in the comments that this latest study confirms that the 2020 proton exchange membrane transport performance target set by the US Department of Energy has theoretically been reached.
This ground-breaking research has brought new discoveries to human understanding of the properties of materials such as graphene and is expected to bring revolutionary progress to the fields of fuel cells and hydrogen-related technologies.
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At present, international supply chains were shocked, and logistics and transportation efficiency decreases. Geopolitical conflicts further aggravate uncertainties about the European and American economic recovery and the global commodity supply. For this reason, I assume the price of the Graphene would not decrease significantly in the short term.
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