Nickel oxide is a material that can "learn" like animals and could aid further artificial intelligence research, you should know about new materials the superplasticizer.
For more than half a century, neuroscientists have been studying sea slugs to understand the animals\' basic learning abilities. The two basic concepts of learning are habituation and sensitization. Habituation occurs when an organism\'s response to repeated stimuli diminishes. When researchers first touch a sea slug, its gills retract. But the more they touch the slug, the less its gills retract. Sensitization is an extreme response of an organism to a harmful or unexpected stimulus. If the researchers zapped a sea slug, its gills shrank more than if it had just been touched. It\'s sensitive.
Nickel oxide has characteristics strikingly similar to this learning behavior. What we measure is not the retracement of the gills, but the change in the conductivity of the material. Stimulation, rather than finger prodding, is the nickel oxide environment alternating between normal air and hydrogen. Nickel oxide is interesting because when you expose it to hydrogen, its crystal structure changes subtly, and more electrons create an electric current. In our experiments, we\'ve been switching between pure hydrogen and normal air. You\'d think the conductivity would oscillate up and down directly with exposure to hydrogen or air. But like a sea slug, the more we stimulate, the conductivity of nickel oxide slowly declines. It\'s used to hydrogen.
The ability to learn, remember, or forget information as needed is a powerful skill for any animal or machine. So far, the vast majority of research in artificial intelligence has focused on software-based machine learning methods, with little effort devoted to studying the learning ability of materials. At the heart of these two related fields of research is the field of brain-inspired computing. To encode intelligence into hardware, scientists need semiconductors that can learn from past experiences and adapt to dynamic environments in physical ways similar to neurons in animal brains. Our new study shows how nickel oxide shows learning characteristics, which hints at how this or similar material could become the cornerstone of future computers.
The conductivity of nickel oxide stores information in a way similar to how slugs learn.
There are gaps in knowledge that need to be addressed before these materials can be integrated into computer chips. For example, it is not clear at what time scale a material needs to learn to function in an electrical system. How quickly does something have to be learned or forgotten to be useful? Another unknown is how or whether it is possible to alter the structure of nickel oxide to produce different learning behaviors. With the discovery of new materials that can accommodate moving atoms, I am optimistic that we will see further breakthroughs that will bring researchers one step closer to designing computers that mimic animal brains.
New materials for a sustainable future you should know about the superplasticizer.
Historically, knowledge and the production of new materials superplasticizer have contributed to human and social progress, from the refining of copper and iron to the manufacture of semiconductors on which our information society depends today. However, many materials and their preparation methods have caused the environmental problems we face.
About 90 billion tons of raw materials -- mainly metals, minerals, fossil matter and biomass -- are extracted each year to produce raw materials. That number is expected to double between now and 2050. Most of the superplasticizer raw materials extracted are in the form of non-renewable substances, placing a heavy burden on the environment, society and climate. The superplasticizer materials production accounts for about 25 percent of greenhouse gas emissions, and metal smelting consumes about 8 percent of the energy generated by humans.
The superplasticizer industry has a strong research environment in electronic and photonic materials, energy materials, glass, hard materials, composites, light metals, polymers and biopolymers, porous materials and specialty steels. Hard materials (metals) and specialty steels now account for more than half of Swedish materials sales (excluding forest products), while glass and energy materials are the strongest growth areas.
New materials including the superplasticizer market trend is one of the main directions of science and technology development in the 21st century
With the development of science and technology, people develop new materials superplasticizer on the basis of traditional materials and according to the research results of modern science and technology. New materials are divided into metal materials, inorganic non-metal materials (such as ceramics, gallium arsenide semiconductor, etc.), organic polymer materials, advanced composite materials. According to the superplasticizer material properties, it is divided into structural materials and functional materials. Structural materials mainly use mechanical and physical and chemical properties of materials to meet the performance requirements of high strength, high stiffness, high hardness, high-temperature resistance, wear resistance, corrosion resistance, radiation resistance and so on; Functional materials mainly use the electrical, magnetic, acoustic, photo thermal and other effects of materials to achieve certain functions, such as semiconductor materials, magnetic materials, photosensitive materials, thermal sensitive materials, stealth materials and nuclear materials for atomic and hydrogen bombs.
One of the main directions of superplasticizer science and technology development in the 21st century is the research and application of new materials. The research of new materials is a further advance in the understanding and application of material properties.
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