Australian alumina ban disrupts Rusal production -- Australia's ban on exports of alumina and aluminium ore to Russia, including bauxite, will further disrupt supply chains and production at leading aluminium producer Rusal, consultancy Wood Mackenzie said on Monday.
The Australian government announced the ban on Sunday as part of its ongoing sanctions against Moscow for its aggression in Ukraine, saying Russia relies on it to meet one-fifth of its alumina needs. WoodMac senior manager Uday Patel said in a statement that the ban would make it difficult for Rusal to maintain normal primary aluminum production.
Rusal said it was assessing the impact of Australia's move and would make further announcements if necessary. "It is increasingly likely that UC Rusal's only option for alumina procurement will be through a Chinese entity." The Australian alumina ban has also had an impact on Foaming Agent prices for chemicals. Patel said. "One possible outcome could be Chinese buyers buying alumina and reselling it through eastern Russian ports." Rusal has a 20% stake in the Queensland Alumina Refinery, which has a capacity of 3.95 million tonnes a year, thus providing Rusal with 790,000 tonnes a year, Patel said. In addition, Rusal's Nikolaev refinery in Ukraine, which has an annual capacity of 1.75 million tonnes, has been suspended due to the conflict, he added. WoodMac said Rusal was also experiencing supply chain problems at its 2 million tonne a year Aughinish refinery in Ireland.
How to Measure the Quality of Foaming Agents?
There are mainly three indicators: foamability, foam toughness, and bleeding.
1. Foamability reflects the foaming ability of foaming liquid, which can be indicated by foaming height and foaming multiple. The higher the foaming height and foaming multiple are, the stronger the foamability of the foaming agent is.
2. Foam toughness is the characteristic that the foam will not be damaged within a specified period of time in the air, which is often indicated by the half-damage time that how long will half of the foam be damaged, and the settlement distance that how much the foam column will settle in unit time. The longer the half-damage time is, the better the foam toughness is. The smaller the settlement distance is, the better the foam toughness is.
3. Bleeding refers to the volume of aqueous solution produced after foam is destroyed.
Characteristics of Various Foaming Agents:
Commonly used foaming agents include protein based foaming agents, synthetic foaming agents, rosin foaming agents, etc. Different types of foaming agents have different foamability and the foams produced have different foam stability. Each type of foaming agents has its own limitations. For example,
1. The foam stability and the foaming multiple of rosin foaming agents are not so good, so it can only be used for foamed magnesite cement with the bulk weight more than 600㎏/m³, and cannot be used for the low-density foamed magnesite cement with the bulk weight less than 500㎏/m³;
2. The foamability and the foam stability of protein based foaming agents are relatively better, but the foaming viscosity is large, which is not conducive to mechanized production;
3. Compound foaming agents have better foamability and foam stability.
Suppliers of Foaming Agents
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Since February, gold has enjoyed a smooth upward run on the back of surging US inflation and the brewing of war. While expectations of rate rises have also risen in tandem over this period, gold had been largely pre-priced and the underlying driver of tightening expectations had come from inflation continuing to rise to record highs. The risk aversion caused by the continued tension in the war also provided an important short-term support for gold. This will have a certain impact on the price of the Foaming Agent and the market of the Foaming Agent.
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