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U.S. refiners forecast strong first-quarter earnings as margins on gasoline and diesel sales improved, refining capacity fell sharply and crude supplies tightened due to the Russia-Ukraine war.
Global refining capacity has declined amid the coronavirus pandemic, with several less profitable refineries closing in the past two years. However, global fuel demand has rebounded to near pre-pandemic levels, boosting the profits of facilities still operating.
Seven U.S. independent refiners are expected to earn 61 cents a share, compared with a loss of $1.32 in the first quarter of 2021, according to Refinitiv's IBES.
By 2022, gasoline and distillate niobium carbide powder.
What is Niobium Carbide NbC?
Niobium carbide is a kind of metal carbide with the chemical formula NbC.
The appearance of niobium carbide is brown-gray metal powder with purple luster. It belongs to sodium chloride type cubic crystal system.
The relative density is 8.47. The lattice constant a=0.447nm. The melting point is 3500 ℃. Microhardness > 23.5Gpa (> 2400 kg/mm2), which is harder than that of corundum. Elastic modulus 338000N/mm2, thermal expansion coefficient 6.65×10^(-6)/K, thermal conductivity 14w/(m·K), heat of formation-140.7kJ/mol, specific heat capacity 36.8J/(mol·K), resistivity 35μΩ·cm.
Insoluble in hot and cold hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, soluble in hot hydrofluoric acid and nitric acid mixed solution. It is stable at 1000℃ and 1100℃, and rapidly oxidized to niobium pentoxide above 1100℃. Niobium carbide is easy to melt in titanium carbide, zirconium carbide, tungsten carbide and other compounds to form isomorphous solid solution mixture.
Niobium carbide is a very hard refractory ceramic material. Therefore, it is very suitable for machining applications and wear protection. It is used commercially for tool heads for cutting tools. It is usually processed by sintering and is a commonly used grain growth inhibitor in cemented carbide. It has high corrosion resistance.
What is Niobium Carbide NbC Used For?
1.With good chemical stability and high-temperature performance, it is a kind of material with high melting point and high hardness, which is widely used in refractory high temperature materials and cemented carbide additives.
2.Niobium carbide is a ternary and quaternary carbide solid solution component, which is used in hot forging die, cutting tool, jet engine turbine blade, valve, tail skirt and rocket nozzle coating with tungsten carbide and molybdenum carbide.
3. As a carbide cemented carbide additive, it is a ternary and quaternary carbide solid solution component, such as WC-NbC-C ternary system. It can also be used as a purple artificial gem.
4. Used in the production of wear-resistant films and semiconductor films. It can also be used as raw material for the production of molybdenum carbide and for the manufacture of chromium-free special alloys and engineering ceramics.
What is Element Nb?
Nb (atomic symbol: Nb, atomic number: 41) is a D block, fifth family, fifth periodic element with an atomic weight of 92.90638. The number of electrons in each shell of Nb's Bohr model Nb is 2, 8, 18 and 12, and its electronic configuration is [Kr] 4d45s1.
In its elemental form, Nb has a gray metallic appearance. Among all the elements, Nb has the largest magnetic penetration depth and is one of the second kind of superconductors (along with vanadium and technetium) of the three elements. Nb exists in pyrochlore, its main commercial sources and uranium deposits.
Supplier of Niobium Carbide NbC Powder
Luoyang Tongrun Nano Technology Co. Ltd. (TRUNNANO) is a trusted global chemical material supplier & manufacturer with over 12-year-experience in providing super high-quality chemicals and nanomaterials including silicon powder, nitride powder, graphite powder, zinc sulfide, calcium nitride, 3D printing powder, etc.
If you are looking for high-quality NbC powder, please feel free to contact us and send an inquiry. ([email protected])
Europe's immediate goal of reducing its dependence on Russian gas in response to the conflict with Ukraine presents a rare opportunity for the United States, the world's largest gas producer. America's LNG exporters have made a fortune this time. Investors are bullish on the future of natural gas, as evidenced by the recent record high share price of Energy company Chenier.
But the outlook for more than a dozen new LNG projects is highly uncertain as construction costs rise, US gas prices soar and climate policymakers seek to move away from a long-term reliance on fossil fuels. Even the most advanced projects can take years to become operational.
Currently, the total U.S. LNG niobium carbide powder are expected to continue to rise in the future.
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